Richard Wagner, Joseph Torgesen, Carol Rashotte, Nils A. Pearson
Ages: 4.0 through 24.11
Testing Time: 40 minutes
The CTOPP-2 is a comprehensive instrument designed to assess phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming. People with deficits in one or more of these areas may have more difficulty reading than those who do not. The CTOPP-2 identifies individuals from ages 4 through to 24 who may benefit from instructional activities to enhance their phonological skills.
- Ages 4 - 6: Examiner Record Booklets (25)
- Ages 7 - 24: Examiner Record Booklets (25)
- 2 CDs (Core Subtests and Supplemental Subtest)
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing - Second Edition
Elision - the ability to remove phonological segments from spoken words to form other words
Blending Words - the ability to synthesize sounds to form word
Sound Matching - the ability to select words with the same initial and final sounds.
Phoneme Isolation - the ability to isolate individual sounds within words.
Blending Nonwords - the ability to synthesize sounds to form nonwords.
Memory for Digits - the ability to repeat numbers accurately.
CTOPP-2 Complete Kit Includes:
Four Principal Uses of the CTOPP-2:
Identify individuals who are significantly below their
peers in important phonological abilities.
Determine strengths and weaknesses among developed phonological processes.
Document individuals' progress in phonological
processing as a consequence of special
Reliability of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by average internal consistency coefficients presented for the subtests that exceed .80 for all except Nonword Repetition with an average alpha of .77. The average internal consistency coefficients for the composites were all .85 or higher, a highly desirable level for reliability.
Validity of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by correlations to measures directly related to the constructs measured by the CTOPP-2. The averaged coefficients for the subtests range from .49 (moderate) to .84 (very large); those for the composites range from .65 (large) to .76 (very large) in magnitude.
Serve as a measurement device in research studies investigating phonological processing.
Nonword Repetition - the ability to repeat nonwords accurately.
Rapid Digit Naming - the ability to rapidly name numbers.
Rapid Letter Naming - the ability to rapidly name letters.
Rapid Color Naming - the ability to rapidly name colors.
Rapid Object Naming - the ability to rapidly name objects.
Phonological Awareness Composite Score (PACS):
represents the examinee’s awareness of and access to the phonological structure of oral language.
- For 4 through 6 year olds, the PACS is comprised of the Elision, Blending Words, and Sound Matching subtests.
- For 7 through 24 year olds, the PACS is comprised of the Elision, Blending Words, and Phoneme Isolation subtests.
Phonological Memory Composite Score (PMCS):
represents the examinee's ability to code information phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory.
- The PMCS is comprised of the Memory for Digits and Nonword Repetition subtests.
Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RSNCS):
measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly.
- The RSNCS is comprised of the Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming subtests.
Rapid Non-Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RNNCS): measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long - term or permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly.
- The RNNCS is comprised of the Rapid Color Naming and Rapid Object Naming subtests.
- Offers an alternative for young children, ages 4 through 6 year olds, not familiar with letters and numbers.
Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite Score (APACS): measures the examinee’s phonological awareness exclusively with nonwords.
- For 7 - 24 year olds, the APACS is formed by combining the scaled scores from Blending Nonwords and Segmenting Nonwords.
The CTOPP-2 yields six types of normative scores: age equivalents, grade equivalents, percentile ranks, subtest scaled scores, composite indexes, and developmental scores. Percentile ranks are easily understood by parents and others with whom the examiner might want to share the results. Subtest scaled scores have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. The composite score indexes have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Age and grade equivalents show the relative standing of individuals’ scores. A new Rasch-based developmental score is now available for the non-speeded subtests.
All new normative data were collected in 2008 and 2009. The test was normed on 1,900 individuals ranging in age from 6 through 24 years. The demographic characteristics of the sample conform to those of the population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, and are, therefore, representative of the U.S. population.
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